Zuth mentions Alexander Bertioli, a guitar teacher in London, who amongst other things published “Eine vollständige Gitarrenschule und fortschreitende Studien [A Comprehensive Guitar method for Continued Study]” (London bei Wybrow).(Note 46) The guitar method’s title reads: A Complete Method, for the Spanish Guitar or Lyre, Composed by Ferdinando Carulli, Simplified and Improved for the Use of Beginners with Twenty-four Lessons by Mr Bertioli, London. Published By Dover and Henderson, 68 Chancery Lane. Title Page. Preliminary Principles of Music, pp. 1-6, music pp. 1-22. 4to. Both Berthioli and “A Complete Method...” seem to be unknown to Button. Finally we would mention a few English works for guitar in our collection which are not included in Zuth and not in Fétis or Eitner. Six Lessons For the Guittar Composed by Thomas Thackray of York. London. Printed and Sold by John Johnston at No 1 York Street Covent Garden. Even “Opera Seconda" with the same title.(Note 47) Grove mentions: Six Lessons for the Guitarr, printed at York by Thomas Haxby for the author; but as such only one part with another designation for the place of printing and publishing. In Grove, however, it is added that “Other ’Lessons’ by him are extant”. Instructions, for the Spanish Guitar, The Manner of Holding the Instrument fully explained, likewise a Complete Method of Tuning To which are added Scales in the Major and Minor Keys, and a Variety of the most popular and favourite Airs, Dedicated to his Friend, C. M. Sola. By J. Mollino, London. Published by Clementi, Collard & Collard, 4to, Title page, 22 pages.(Note 48) J. Mollino is not included in the music handbooks (cf. Francesco Molino).(Note 49) As is the case with Berthioli also Mollino and his “Instructions...” were unknown to Button. On the guitarists mentioned in the footnote, Horetzky and Stanislas Szczepanowski, more information can be had in Button, pp. 86-90. The death date of Horetzky is in fact 6th October 1870. Szczepanowski’s connection with Zani de Ferranti is described in Simon Wynberg’s “Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti”, Heidelberg 1989 (vol. 14 of The Guitar Works of Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti) (Note 50) (Note 51) As we have already mentioned in the introduction, we would like to expand our presentation of Denmark and Sweden in this essay to also cover lutenists in these countries. In the Kongelige Kapel in Copenhagen several famous foreign lutenists were employed, amongst whom Zuth mentions the most renowned of them all, the English lute player and composer, John Dowland, who resided in Denmark 8 years (1598-1606), (Note 52) and his compatriot, Thomas Cutting, (Note 53) who was in service in Denmark from 1st April, 1608 to 9th October, 1610 (Zuth dates it as “um 1607”). Zuth states also—probably following Eitner—that Thomas Robinson, who published in 1603 in London a method for several instruments, among them lute, was also in Danish employ. However, from Danish sources one cannot find any confirmation of this Danish residency. Information about this most likely stems from Robinson’s own words, that he “was thought in Denmark at Elsinore the fittest to instruct” the Princess Anna, who later became English Queen (see also Dictionary of National Biography), which in itself cannot exclude the possibility that he really did reside in Denmark and did instruct the Princess. Cf. Grove’s Dictionary: "Nothing is known of his biography”. Further, Zuth devotes one article to the Danish lute player Hans Nielsen (in 1623 assistant leader (Note 54) of the Kongelige Kapel, who from 1606 to 1608 was with Gregor Howett (Note 55) in Wolfenbüttel to study lute playing. Zuth’s information (see article “Howett”) that Nielsen became Howett’s student in Braunschweig in 1606 is utterly unsupported (cf. Eitner). Danish sources claim without exception Wolfenbüttel as place of residence for Nielsen. Also included in Zuth are the theorbo player in Prince Christian’s Kapell, the Bohemia-born Phillip Stolle, who is mentioned in a “Besoldings-Register” [Pay Roll] from 1643-44, and who stayed in Denmark until 1647; and “Gabriel Voigtländer”, who in 1639 became Prince Christian’s "Hoftrompeter og Musikus” [Court Trumpeter and Musician](Note 56) and who is of interest in this connection because in 1642 in Denmark he published Allerhand Oden vnd Lieder—bey Clavi Cimbalen, Lauten, Tiorben, Pandorn, Violen di Gamba gantz bequemlich zu gebrauchen, vnd zu singen, Gestellet vnd in Truck gegeben, Durch Gabrieln Voigtlander, Sohra 1642.(Note 57) There were also several lutenists in the Kongelige Kapel not named by Zuth. During the period of the rule of Christian III, there was a “Luthenslaaer” [lutenist] Benedictus, and during the time of Fredrik II, one Hans Krakow. From the time of Christian IV there were many lutenists in the Kongelige Kapel above and beyond those already named—Dowland, Cutting and Hans Nielsen—i.e. Johan Spalttholtz, Bernard Gottschalck, Jörgen Rasch, Niels Mortensen Kolding, Giovanni Batista Veraldi, Christian Brade, Michael Ulich and Gottschalk Behr. Amongst them, Michael Ulich in particular should be worth further attention. He was a theorbo player in Christian IV’s Kapel in 1634-43, but remained in Denmark for a long time thereafter. In addition to being an instrumentalist, he was also a singer and a sort of court poet of the more fustian variety. According to an epitaph in the Buxtehude Church, he was born “in Freyberg in Meiszen” in 1601 and died in Buxtehude in 1673. In Frederick III’s Kapel we notice the lutenist Joachim ZoĎga who studied with JŅrgen Rasch. In 1702 the Frenchman Bethune received “50 Rd fordi han ’so vorhin’ havde underviist Kongen pĆ Angélique” [50 Rd, because he before had instructed the King on the angelique]. The last lutenist in the Kongelige Kapel was Nathanael Diessel (1736-1745). His predecessor was the “Guitar-mester” Johan Friederich Fibiger, who was employed in the Kongelige Kapel after F. Hartmann’s death in 1703, but already in 1698 he had become “forelŅbig ansat som Guitarmester i tre aar” [until further notice employed as Guitar Master for three years], and was most likely also a lutenist. He was the teacher of Princess Charlotte Amalie, Fredrick IV’s daughter, in lute and guitar playing. (Note 58) (Note 59)
The guitar’s period of flourishing arrived later in northern Europe than elsewhere. Only after the old lute fully disappeared from musical life(Note 60) did the guitar become popular in the North, a popularity which lasted from 1820 to about the middle of the nineteenth century. In Denmark the 1820’s represented the pinnacle of the guitar’s popularity, which Niels Gade relates in his autobiography: “Den Gang var Guitar, FlŅjte og til Dels Harpe de af Dilettanter mest yndede Instrumenter. Herrer og Damer sang svĺrmeriske og sentimentale Romanzer af Rudolf Bay, Plantade o.s.v. till Accompagnement af Guitarren, som hang i et lyseblaat Baand om Skulderen—sĆledes var Moden i Begyndelsen af Tyverne. Min Fader havde et vist Ry for at forfĺrdige velklingende og veludseende Guitarer efter spansk Faćon, og hans Handel var den Gang meget indbringende. Senere fortrĺngtes Guitaren af Pianofortet.” [At that time the guitar, flute and to an extent, the harp were the most favoured instruments of the dilettantes. Ladies and gentlemen would sing dreamy and sentimental romances by Rudolph Bay, Plantade, etc. to the accompaniment of the guitar, which hung on a light blue ribbon over the shoulder—such was the fashion or mode in the beginning of the 20’s. My father had a certain skill in making good sounding and good looking guitars after the Spanish fashion, and at that time, his enterprise was very profitable. Later the guitar was replaced by the pianoforte.] Niels Gade and A. P. Berggreen are often cited in non-Scandinavian handbooks as the main representatives for the guitar in Denmark (see for example Encyclopédie de la Musique, 2e partie, p. 2010). Also Zuth, following Bone, mentions Berggreen as a composer for the guitar, and Gade as a good guitar player. With reference to Gade, however, his activities as a guitarist should have been extremely unimportant. No compositions for the guitar by Gade are known, and his playing seems to have been confined to his early years: when he was 6 years old he received a small child’s guitar which he played skilfully, but which was soon replaced by the violin. It is quite a different matter with Berggreen. Already in his school years he composed a sonatina for flute and guitar, and his Trois thźmes variés pour la guitare date from 1825. By 1824 his skill as a guitar player had reached such a level that he could declare himself a teacher of the instrument. Even his earliest songs seemed to have been composed with the guitar in mind, as Skou declares in his biography of Berggren: “den smeltende skjŅnne ’De tvende Dugdraaber’ (1818) der endnu langt in i Trediverne Jĺvnlig og altid med Bevĺgelse blev sunget i Familiekredse til Ledsagelse af Guitaren. Det kjendtes i det Hele paa disse Ungdomsarbejder, at de ere tĺnkte og fŅlte ved Guitarren, dette Datidens Yndlingsinstrument, som C. M. v. Weber saa betegnende kalder ’die freundliche Begleiterin des Gesanges’. Med dette var Berggreen fortrolig fra Skoletiden, og det fulgte ham till Regensen, hvor han ofte glĺdede Kammeraterne med sit Spil. At dette ikke er blevet glemt af Ungdomsvennerne, ses bl.a. af et Brev fra Dr. Theol. W. Rothe, der endnu i 1869 titulerer ham: ’Kjĺre Professor Berggreen! Fordum Guitarspiler paa Regensen—Savnet af Klaveret eller—om man vil—Forkjĺrligheden for Guitaren har sat kjĺndelige Spor i hans Romancekompositioner, og det ikke blot i de tidligste.” [the meltingly beautiful “The Two Dewdrops” (1818) that far into the ’30’s was often sung, always with feeling, in the family circle to the accompaniment of the guitar. It seems in general that these youthful works were thought and felt with the guitar, that period’s most beloved instrument, which C. M. v. Weber so accurately calls ’the friendly companion of songs’. These were things that Berggreen knew well from his schooldays, and which followed him to Regensen where he often delighted his friends with his playing. That this was not forgotten by the friends of his youth can be seen in e. g. a letter from Dr. Theol., W. Rothe, who still in 1869 addresses him. ’Dear Professor Berggren! Former Guitar Player at Regensen...’ the lack of a piano—or if you will—the preference for the guitar has left obvious traces in his romance compositions and this is the case not only in his earliest ones]. Otherwise, Berggreen arranged a great many songs for the guitar: Kapriciosa: Yndede Sange [Beloved Songs]; Fr. Kuhlau, ElverhŅi: Sange; Studenternes Lykönsknings Sang [The Student’s Congratulation Song]—komponeret af H. E. KrŅyer, arrangeret for Guitarre af A. P. Berggreen; To Sange af Operaen Postillonen i Lonjumeau, etc. Concerning Danish guitarists, Zuth mentions in addition to Berggreen and Gade, Peder Schall, Henrik and Frederik Rung, as well as the recent Italian-born, but working in Copenhagen, guitarist, Alberto Bracony. Concerning Peder Schall we could add that one chapter, pp. 303-310 is devoted to him in Thrane: Fra Hofviolonernes Tid in which his guitar playing and his “hŅjst originale Humoresker” [highly original humoresques] for the guitar are mentioned. Henrik Rung had early devoted himself to the guitar, and trained himself to be a virtuoso on the instrument. Amongst his many song compositions about 50 have guitar as well as piano accompanimnents. Rung’s Op. 1-4 for solo guitar are entered in Zuth; Op 2 and 3, but with inexact titles. They should be: Op 2 Deux polonaises; Op 3 Petites lećons progressives. We can add two pieces for 3 guitars: 2 Guitar-Terzetter. His son, Frederik Rung had by 1866 (he was born in 1854) already performed as a guitar and mandolin player. Those named in Zuth as “Albumsblate" should be “Albumsblade”. Alberto Bracony is presumed by Zuth as to be identical with pseudonym A. Alberto, who produced a small guitar and lute method in Leipzig in 1912 according to Zuth. We have Alberto’s method in a Swedish translation, which however was published by Benjamin in Hamburg. Zuth lists only the works of Bracony which were published in Germany. However, when he was working in Copenhagen, Bracony published through Skandinavisk Musikforlag Guitarspillerens fŅrste Sange [The Guitarist’s First Songs] (2 issues), Op. 11, and pieces for the mandolin. Amongst the older Danish composers who wrote for guitar and who are omitted by Zuth, I would mention Philip Ludvig Keck. He was born in Hannover (1790), but spent most of his life in Denmark where he died in 1848. He composed: Six Pieces pour Flěte et Guitarre, composées par P. L. Keck Membre de la Chapelle Royale. Propriété de l’Éditeur. Copenhague chez C. C. Lose. Keck was an especially skilful oboist and as such employed in the Kongelige Kapel in Copenhagen (1816-45). He has also composed pieces for 2 flutes. It seems strange that the Danish music dictionaries leave out his name, since he wrote music for several of Bournonville’s ballets (Faust, Soldat og Bonde; Victors Bryllup) as well as for Lorcher’s Kĺrlighed pĆ Landet. Guitar methods in Denmark, Bornhardt’s and Carulli’s in translation and also several by Danish guitarists are not mentioned in Zuth. The eldest of these later methods is P. Chr. Koch, Praktisk Sang- og Guitar-Skole for Folket [Practical Song and Guitar Method for the People], 2 issues, Copenhagen 1847. The guitar methods written by Adolph Julius Eggers (1859-1919) came from a later time, as do those by Poul Bredo Grandjean (b. 1880) and Albert F. Petersen (the fourth edition of his method is dated 1911). Eggers was amongst other things guitar teacher in Copenhagen and produced a great number of song collections with guitar accompaniment, duets for 2 guitars and “12 Spanske Danse og Melodier” [12 Spanish Dances and Melodies] for mandolin and guitar.(Note 61) P. B. Grandjean has written guitar accompaniments to several collections of songs, occasionally together with Axel Grandjean. A. Peteren has also written Mandolin-Spillerens Underholdningsbog [The Mandolin Player’s Entertainment Book] of the year 1910 (for mandolin and guitar) and Guitarspillerens Underholdningsbog [The Guitar Player’s Entertainment Book] (for song and guitar). He has also produced methods for banjo and mandolin. Amongst other Danish composers who have written for guitar and whom Zuth has excluded, there are several we could mention. Rudolph Bay (1791-1856) wrote songs accompanied by guitar or piano. There is a manuscript in Aarhus Statsbibliotek [City Library] by SŅffren Degen (died in 1885): Erindringer fra Danmark [Memories from Denmark], containing guitar pieces both with and without text, dated 1835-45; most of them seem to be his own compositions. In the collection Sept Morceaux for Guitar Solo from Wilhelm Hansen’s publishing house is the last composition by Degen: PiŹce facile pour la Guitare. Frederik Wulff Carl Pedersen (1770-1854) published collections of music for guitar and voice. Wilhelm Matthison-Hansen (1870-1922) was in his later years a much sought-after teacher of guitar, and arranged songs for guitar, Chant national Béarnais for guitar, 4 mandolins and mandola (in 1905), and Chanson Arabe for 2 guitars, 4 mandolins and mandola (in 1905). By K. Knudsen there are arranged “Guitar duetter" [Duets for Guitar] dedicated to the “Guitarklubben Canto”(Note 62) (Scandinavian Music Publishers), and Oluf A. T. BrŅndberg has arranged “Danske Melodier. Potpourri" [Danish Melodies, Potpourri] both for mandolin and guitar and for mandolin, guitar and piano. As in France, a great many songs from operas with accompaniment by guitar or piano were published in Denmark during the first half of the nineteenth century. C. C. Lose in Copenhagen published for example arrangements from Auber’s Elskovsdrikken (Le Philtre) (7 nos.), Fra Diavolo (7 nos.) and Muurmesteren (Le Maćon) from Boieldieu’s Den hvide Dame (La Dame Blanche) and from Hérold’s Zampa (8 nos.), Marschner’s Tempelherren og JŅdinden [The Templer and the Jewess], (10 nos.). Also Danish composers are represented by songs with a similar accompaniment, as Ivar Bredal, from the operas Bruden fra Lammermoor [Bride of Lammermoor], (10 nos.), and Guerillabanden [The Guerilla Band], (10 nos..).(Note 63) (Note 64) Wilhelm Hansen’s publishing company in Copenhagen has produced Sex Melodier til Fredmanns Epistler af C. M. Bellman udsatte for Pianoforte og Guitarre, af L. P. S. Tellefsen, the Norwegian composer and organist in Odense (1813-67).(Note 65) Fryklund does not seem to have been aware of Thorvald Rischel’s (1861-1939) collection of guitar music in Denmark. There is no sign of a connection between them in Fryklund’s archive. This seems rather odd as they lived not far from each other: Fryklund in Helsingborg and Rischel in Copenhagen. The Rischel and Birket-Smith collection is now housed in the Royal Library in Copenhagen and a catalogue on the holdings has been published by Editions Orphée. As I mentioned earlier a history of the guitar in Denmark by Erling MŅldrup is under preparation. On the Gade-brothers see the interesting article by Dorthe Falcon MŅller, “BrŅdrene Gade—Danske instrumentbyggere i fŅrste halvdel af det 19. Ćrhundrede” (Dansk aarbog for musikforskning 7/1973-1976, pp. 192-212). Other Danish guitarmakers (not less than 19 have been identified) are described in Dorthe Falcon MŅller’s “Danske Instrumentbyggere 1770-1850”, Copenhagen 1983.
In his Handbuch Zuth has mentioned Sweden in fairly many places. He mentions several lutebooks which are in Swedish libraries—such as Per Brahes Visbok [Songbook] (Note 66) in Skoklosters library. Under the heading Ludovicus de Geer, it is stated that “einen Lautenhandschr. in franz. Tabulatur verwahrt die Stadtbibl. in Norrköping” [the city library of Norrköping has a lute manuscript in French tablature](Note 67) Following Eitner, Zuth mentions Anders Düben’s “5 Menuetten in einer Tabulaturhandschrift und einen Marsch ’pour les Suédois’ in einem Lautenbuch der kgl. Bibl. zu Stockholm [5 Minuets, in tabulature manuscript, and one March ’pour les Suédois’ in a lute book from the Royal Library, Stockholm.(Note 68) Antonio Bartali has an entry, also after Eitner, as a composer: in Uppsala University Library there is “8 Sonaten zu 3-6 Stimmen für V4.,(Note 69) Viola d. G., Trombone, Viola da brazzo, Tiorba und Basso cont.”. Amongst the Germans working in Stockholm, Zuth names David Kellner, carilloneur in the German Church in Stockholm and organist, who published “XVI Auserlesene Lautenstücke”. He mentions Jakob Kremberg, employed in the Swedish court orchestra in 1680, who wrote for the lute and guitar, Johann Gottlieb Naumann—himself a guitar player—from whom comes “ein Arrangement in franz. Tabulatur für Harmonica mit Laute”, and who inspired the guitar maker, Jakob August Otto in Weimar to add a 6th string to the Spanish guitar’s 5. However, Naumann’s activities in Sweden are not indicated in Zuth’s survey of his life. Also Joseph Martin Kraus is mentioned, whose Op. 1 is a sonata for guitar and piano. According to Eitner, this composition should be found in the Bibliothek der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna, but, according to information in the Sv. Tidskr. för Musikf., 1924, p. 92, it was stolen from there. About David Kellner, see further Kenneth Sparr, “David Kellner: A Biographical Survey” (The Lute 29/1989 pp. 3-36), reprinted in “Balticum—a Coherent Musical Landscape in 16th and eighteenth Centuries”. Ed. by Irma Vierimaa. Studia musicologica universitatis helsingiensis VI. Helsinki 1994. pp. 63-90. A German version of the article is “David Kellner: Ein biographischer Überblick Teil 1-3." (Gitarre & Laute 14/1992, Heft 6, pp. 13-18; 7/1993, Heft 1 pp. 17-21; Heft 2 pp. 17-21) and a Swedish version is “David Kellner—lutenist, klockspelare och organist" (Gitarr och Luta 26/1993 nr 1 s. 3-13). About Kellner’s continuo treatise see Kenneth Sparr, “En 250-Ćrig ’Trogen Underrättelse Uti General=Basen...’ och dess författare David Kellner (Tidskrift för tidig musik 11/1989 nr 4 pp. 3-10) In Zuth’s Handbuch it is said that Karl Arnold, “Cellist der kgl. Kapelle in Stockholm”, according to Bone in The Guitar and Mandolin, had published compositions and arrangements for solo guitar. However Bone’s information is not exactly repeated by Zuth. Bone says in his work, p. 20, that one Charles Arnold, about whose life nothing is known, in London published several pieces for guitar, amongst others, “Four Books of Melodies” for guitar solo. Bone adds in this connection that one Charles Arnold, pianist and composer, visited St. Petersburg in 1820. Bone here refers to the pianist, Karl Arnold, whose son was a cellist in the Swedish court orchestra from 1851-67; thus it would seem generally unlikely that any of these Arnolds should have published the guitar compositions in London which are referred to by Bone. Of interest in Sweden is Zuth’s reference to Pietro Reggio, singer and lute player in Queen Christina’s court orchestra in Rome (Note 70) and to the Swede Magnus Olson, who was reputed to be a teacher in Salt Lake City of the German-American guitarist, C. D. Schettler (Zuth, p. 245), and also to the German guitar players Adam Darr, who played concerts also throughout Sweden, and Heinrich Albert, who prior to his guitar period, had played in an orchestra in amongst other countries Sweden. Zuth devotes a long article to Bellman (Zuth spells it Bellmann), with information about the literature on Bellman in German, and also Sven Scholander is heralded as the first to equip the old Swedish lute with guitar strings and guitar tuning (even his daughter Lisa is mentioned). Amongst Germans inspired by Scholander to concert singing with guitar accompaniment, Clara Brat is mentioned. The old, highly skilled Swedish lutemakers are given a great deal of attention, not least thanks to the attention given by von Lütgendorff to Hedvig Boivie’s study: NĆgra svenska lut- och fiolmakare under 1700-talet [Some Swedish Lute and Violin Makers of the eighteenth Century] in his monumental work: Die Geigen- und Lautenmacher. Thus in Zuth we find the lute makers Sven Beckman (not Swend Beckmann), Jonas Elg, Göran Garman, Johan Jerner (not Johann), Pehr Kraft, (not Per), Pehr Lundborg and Lars Mollenberg. (Note 71)
Of the instruments in Swedish collections which were made by foreign instrument makers, the lute by Mest in Füssen and now in Linköping’s Library is named. The year of construction ó1707—has quite rightly been questioned. Zuth has taken his information about Mest from von Lütgendorff’s work, and von Lütgendorff, having referred to the present author’s essay, "Bidrag till kännedomen om viola d’amore,” [Contributions to the Knowledge of the Viola d’amore] pp. 13, 14, has been the victim of a printing error: in our essay we have the year 1633! Also referred to is a lute by Jakob Heinrich Goldt in Musikmuseet in Stockholm, and a lute by Peter Hellmer in Hammer’s collection in Stockholm, which as we know, was sold in Cologne in 1893. (Note 72) Otherwise, on p. 294 Zuth mentions the “neuschwedische Lauten” and on p. 272, “die neuschwedische Theorbe". On the lute by Raphael Mest see Kenneth Sparr. “Raphael Mests luta” (Linköpings biblioteks handlingar Ny serie band 10, 1984, pp. 4-23)
As the above attests, there is a great deal in Zuth which is of interest as regards the lute and guitar in Sweden. However, we must also assert that there is still a great deal one could add.
The lute was developed in Sweden mainly during the sixteenth century, and a bit into the sebenteenth century, (Note 73) it was developed within the very highest social classes, including royalty: both Gustav Vasa and Erik XIV were capable lute players. In the Swedish court orchestra several lutenists were employed, amongst them, from the time of Gustav Vasa, were Jeronimus from Italy, (there were in fact two with that name), Nicolaus Hoffmann from Danzig, Baltzar Hoffmann, Cornelius Hoffmann and Casper Hoffmann, and Bertil Larsson, who was presumably Swedish. Later there were Jören Vogel (1560) and Renatus de Plessi (1572-73), the latter probably French. Even during the Great Power Period there were a few lutenists in the court orchestra, e. g. Samuel Reimich, the Italian Johan Battista, Frans Behr, Bischow, the Frenchmen Pichon and Betune. The last three belonged to the period of Queen Christina, after which no more lutenists appear in the court orchestra. Betune, who was a member of the court orchestra between 1649-50 can hardly have been the same as the Bethune working in Denmark, who in 1702 received 50 Rd as teacher of King Fredrik IV; however he could very well be the same as the Bethune le cadet mentioned by Zuth, who lived just at that time (cf. Zuth, p. 38). (Note 74) On the early lute history in Sweden see Kenneth Sparr, “Lutan i Sverige—tiden intill 1520” (SGLS 16/1983 nr 2 s. 26-37). A later period is dealt with in the same author’s "Lutenists at the Royal Court of King Gustavus I of Sweden” (The Lute XXV Part 2, 1985, s. 69-80), in a Dutch version “Luitisten aan het hof van koning Gustavus I van Zweden” (De Tabulatuur 6/1989 nr 23 s. 8-14) and in a Swedish version “Lutan i Sverige - tiden 1520-1560” (SGLS 19/1986 nr 1 s. 18-36). See also Kenneth Sparr, “French Lutenists and French Lutemusic in Sweden” (Le luth et sa musique II, Paris 1984 pp. 59-67) and other articles by the same author. On the many lutenists employed at the Swedish court during the Great Power Period see Erik Kjellberg, “Kungliga musiker i Sverige under stormaktstiden”, Vol. 1-2. Uppsala 1979. On the lutenist Hinrich Niewerth see Kenneth Sparr, “Hinrich Niewerth—Lutenist at the Royal Swedish Court” (The Lute XXIV Part 2, 1984, pp. 69-75)
In 1652 when the Italian opera troupe was established in Stockholm under the direction of Vincenzo Albrici (who in 1654 among other things wrote a sinfonia for 3 violins, viola, basso, theorbo, spinet, harpsichord and organo for the Swedish Court, (Note 75) there was in the troupe a “sonatore di tiorba”, who according to Norlind and Trobäck, Kungl. Hovkapellets historia, p. 265, was called Angiot Michele Bartoletti—doubtless the same as the Angiolo Michele Bartolotti, who, according to Zuth, published a “Libro 1-4 di Chitarra spagnuola” in Florence in 1640.
There were also lutenists in Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie’s music troupe. When de la Gardie was governor general in Livonia in 1655, an unnamed lutenist was on the pay roll. In Kägleholm’s accounts for 1661 there is an entry for the lutenist Duall, and in the court accounts from 1680 there is a lutenist, not named. We can add here in this connection that an inventory of Riksarkivet has revealed that in the music gallery at Läckö castle was a case containing several instruments, including an “angelic"; cf. Emil Trobäck, “Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie’s Hovkapell 1645-1686” (Sv. Tidskrift för Musikforskning 1930, pp. 74-84). (Note 76) On the lutenist and singer Israel Pourell employed by Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie, see Kenneth Sparr, “Israel Pourell—lutenist och musikant i stormaktstidens Stockholm”. (Gitarr och Luta 25/1992 nr 2 pp. 49-57)
Lutenists also performed at a later date in Sweden. Christian Ludwig Kuhlau, flutist and kettledrummer in the court orchestra also performed lute solos at concerts in Stockholm, 9th April and 8th October, 1769 (Note 77) and both lute and guitar were played at the concerts given by three Italians in Stockholm during the summer of 1798, Fr. Giordani, L. Inverardi, and J. Folchini: Divertissement med Viola inglese, Luta och Cittra [Divertissement with English violet, lute and citra]. Divertissement för Viola inglese, Luta och Guitarro [Divertissement for Viola inglese, Lute and Guitar]. Giordani played the English violet and the other two, who were actually singers, played the above-mentioned and other instruments as well as the mandolin. (Note 78) (Note 79) (Note 80) On lutenists in Sweden during the eighteenth century see also Robert Eklund’s paper, “UUB 20:13. A Contextual Study of a Lute Manuscript”. Stockholms universitet 1991. On Zaneboni mentioned in the footnote see James Tyler and Paul Sparks, “The Early Mandolin”, Oxford 1989. However, neither Lovise Esio or Carrenso are mentioned in this book.
In the foregoing we have mentioned the great popularity of the guitar in Scandinavia from the 1820’s to the middle of the century. The guitar however seems to have gained its popularity in Sweden a bit later than in Denmark, partly because of Sweden’s geographical position—somewhat cut off from music centres—and partly because of the wide-spread use of the Kraft-lute in Sweden (an instrument which in certain ways was very like the guitar) during the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of the nineteenth. (Note 81) (Note 82) During the period when the guitar was flourishing, there were several eminent guitar players, composers and arrangers in Sweden, of whom hardly any are mentioned in Zuth’s Handbuch. The only Swedish guitarist with an entry in Zuth is P. E. Svedbom, who in Stockholm published "Lieder mit Klavier od. Gitarre”. Zuth refers to Svedbom’s writing music for Runesvärdet. Förslag till Svensk NationalsĆng. Ord af Rdd. Musik med accompagnement för Fortepiano eller Guitarre af [The Rune Sword. Proposal for a Swedish National Anthem. Words by Rdd. Music with accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar by] P. E. Svedbom, Stockholm. Cf. Eitner, and Fryklund, Musikbibliografiska anteckningar, p. 9. (Note 83)
Most of the composers for the guitar in Sweden were also guitar players. Some played the guitar at concerts, amongst whom the violinist in the court orchestra, Fredrik Wilhelm Hildebrand (1785-1830) was one of the first. One of the best known guitar players was Oscar Ahnfelt (1813-1882), who founded a guitar institute in Stockholm. Ahnfelt travelled about and preached in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and at the end of his sermons, he performed songs and accompanied himself on the guitar. In his musical dictionary, Höijer says that Ahnfelt was an excellent guitar player, and as a guitar virtuoso he performed both in Stockholm and in the provinces, and that his playing showed skill, power and taste. Höijer remarks concerning his guitar, that it was constructed by Ahnfelt himself—10 stringed, with two necks, and “över den ena af dessa, som saknar gripbräde, löpa de 4 nytillkomna bassträngarna” [over the one neck, which lacks fingerboard, the new bass strings extend]. Höijer’s information on the guitar constructed by Ahnfelt is repeated in Ahnfelt’s obituary in Svensk Musiktidning (1882, No. 22) and caused a protest in the same journal (No. 24) from the violin maker, O. F. Selling in Stockholm, who stated that he, Selling, had not only invented but also made Ahnfelt’s guitar. The instrument is now in Musikmuseet in Stockholm. The prominent violinist Johan Jakob Nagel (1807-1885), born in Moravia, in the court orchestra in Stockholm from 1830, was also famous as a guitar virtuoso, and Höijer also names, as another virtuoso, the bandmaster of the North Scania Infantry Regiment, G. Brandes (b. 1798). The poet Birger Sjöberg was a good guitar player and toured singing his songs, which he set to music himself, and accompanied himself on the guitar. Johan Isidor Dannström, in his youth, gave guitar lessons.
Concerning the above-mentioned guitar players’ work as composers for the guitar we would add: Hildebrand, who composed Six Polonaises pour Violon ou Flěte avec accompagnement de Pianoforte ou Guitarre; and Verschiedene Tänze und ein Marsch für die Guitarre. He arranged the following for the guitar: Fyra sĆnger ur Frithiofs Saga af [Four Songs from Fritjof’s Saga, by] B. Crusell—of which the first issue was followed by a second containing three songs. Hildebrand also arranged other compositions for the guitar and published Journal för Guitarre. Ahnfelt composed mainly religious songs with accompaniment. He published a song collection with the title “Andeliga sĆnger med accompagnement af Pianoforte eller Guitarre, dels componerade dels samlade af [Sacred Songs, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar Partly Composed, Partly Collected by] Oscar Ahnfelt”. In his youth he is said to have arranged a polonaise by J. M. Rosén for 6 guitars. Amongst Nagel’s songs with accompaniment of guitar “Nordmön i Söder. Romans Orden af Böttiger Satt i Musik för SĆng med Guitarre och Dlle Jenny Lind tillegnad af [The Northern Maiden in the South: Romance, Words by Böttiger, Set to Music for Song with Guitar, Dedicated to Dlle Jenny Lind, by] J. Nagel, is the best known. He also composed: Serenade med accompagnement af Pianoforte eller Guitarre [Serenade, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar], and Cecilia: Samling af lätta tonstycken för En och TvĆ Guitarrer [Cecilia: Collection of Easy Music for One and Two Guitars]. He also published the 8th Swedish edition of Carulli’s guitar method (edited and expanded), with an appendix by Jean Nagel. The first song that J. I. Dannström published was “Romance med accompagnement af pianoforte eller guitarre” [Romance, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar].
Amongst the older composers for the guitar we would name, in addition to the above, A. G. Dannström, who set music to: Kärlekens snaror. Orden af C. F. Dahlgren med Accompagnement för Guitarr och Piano af [Love’s Traps, Words by C. F. Dahlgren, with Accompaniment for Guitar and Piano by] A. G. Dannström, Stockholm, 1838. Dannström was involved in the publishing of Polymnia. Samling af valda SĆngstycken med Guitarre accompagnement arrangerade af [Polymnia, a Collection of Selected Songs, with Guitar Accompaniments, Arranged by] H. Neupert,(Note 84) and A. G. Dannström. Carl Erik Södling (1819-1884) produced SĆnger med ett lätt accompagnement af Guitarre [Songs with Easy Accompaniment for Guitar]. O. Torp wrote Six Lĺndlers Pour la Guitar composés et dédiés ą Madame Betty Wĺrn Par son MaĒtre O. Torp. J. Boman composed music to Tegner’s poems: Musik till fyra dikter af Esaias Tegnér med accompagnement af Piano-Forte eller Guitarr, H. K. H. Kron Prinsessan Josephina UnderdĆnigst tillägnad af [Music to Four Poems by Esaias Tegner, with Accompaniment for Pianoforte or Guitar, with Humble Dedication to Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Josephina, by] J. Boman. 2 editions. SĆnger ur Frithiofs Saga med accompagnement för Guitarre Hans Konglig Höghet Joseph Frans Oscar underdĆnigst tillegnade af [Songs from Frithiof’s Saga, with Accompaniment for Guitar, Humbly Dedicated to His Royal Highness, Joseph Frans Oscar, by] J. Boman. He also published: Ātta duetter för tvĆ guitarrer [Eight Duets for Two Guitars]; and SĆngstycken med accompagnement för Guitarr eller Fortepiano arrangerade af [Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar or Pianoforte Arranged by] J. Boman. This J. Boman is not mentioned in the music handbooks. (Note 85) Also E. W. Brandes composed music for Tegner’s poems: Smärre dikter af Esaias Tegnér satte i Musik för SĆng och Guitarre af [Minor Poems by Esaias Tegner, Set to Music for Song and Guitar, by] E. W. Brandes. Cf. G. Brandes above. Two musicians, born abroad, but who mainly worked in Sweden and composed for the guitar were Du Puy, who was born in Switzerland, and wrote a polonaise for two violins, guitar and bass, published by Kronberger in Prague; and the talented composer, Eduard Brendler, (1800-1831), born in Dresden, but by 1802 was working in Stockholm. He published Skaldestycken af Stagnelius satte i Musik för SĆng och Guitarre af [Poems by Stagnelius, Set to Music for Song and Guitar by] Eduard Brendler. Otto Torp went to USA in c. 1828 and established himself as a “teacher of the Spanish guitar and singing”. In 1829 he published “Instruction Book for the Spanish Guitar” and in 1834 his “New and Improved Method for the Spanish Guitar...” was issued. With the American publishers Hewitt, Riley, Klemm and Firth & Hall Torp published many songs with guitar accompaniment. See Kenneth Sparr, “The Guitar in Sweden to the mid nineteenth Century” (Soundboard 17/1990 No. 1 pp. 19-20.
A bit more recent are the following: Adolf Edgren, music and song teacher by whom besides a guitar method (see below) were published Gitarristen [The Guitarist], 2 issues, Favorit-Album för Guitarrspelare [Album of Favourites for Guitar Players]. Omtyckta melodier, sĆnger och marscher arrangerade eller komponerade för en eller tvĆ guitarre [Popular Melodies, Songs and Marches Arranged for or Composed for one or two Guitars]. Together with Joel Blomqvist (b. 1840), a religious composer, Edgren published Valda sĆnger ur Hemlandstoner m.fl. arrangerade för gitarr [Selected Songs from National Melodies, Arranged for Guitar]. Herman Nyberg published Tre SĆnger för Pianoforte och Guitarre. Ord och musik af [Three Songs for Pianoforte and Guitar, Words and Music by] Herman Nyberg. In the Music Library of Sweden there are a large number of guitar compositions in manuscript by Wilhelm Ström. (Note 86) We would also wish to comment more fully on the question of whether the engineer Boije af Gennäs composed for the guitar, partly because he donated a large collection of guitar music to the Music Library of Sweden , and partly because his biography is missing from our musical dictionaries. Carl Oscar Boije af Gennäs was born in Hasslöv in Halland, 7th July, 1849, and died in Stockholm on the 23rd December, 1923. He attended school in Halmstad and was especially interested in mathematics and botany. He learned to play the guitar from his father, second lieutenant C. O. Boije af Gennäs. When Carl Oscar Boije af Gennäs died he willed his entire guitar library to the Royal Academy of Music, and these works were listed in the catalogue of accessions in 1924, Nos. 433-1547. Amongst the over 1,000 numbers, 126 compositions by Giuliani, 53 by Sor and 37 autographed compositions by Mertz are especially noteworthy, presumably acquired by Boije af Gennäs during his travels south. It is known that he made several journeys to the Tyrol, and Mertz’ widow like Boije af Gennäs, was in contact with guitarists in Munich—Mertz’ widow died poverty stricken in Vienna in 1903 (cf. Zuth, Handbuch). Furthermore, one notes in the guitar collection a large number of compositions and arrangements for guitar in manuscript by Boije af Gennäs himself, e. g. a “Preghiera Seinem Freunde F. Spenzinger gewidmet von C. O. Boije af Gennäs”. (Note 87) He also dedicated a composition to Otto Hammerer: "In Memoriam Otto Hammerer” (printed in Freie Vereinigung). (Note 88) Other compositions or arrangements by Boije af Gennäs were printed in Gitarre-Freund, 1905-06, Freie Vereinigung 1908, and Gitarristische Vereinigung, 1909. Boije af Gennäs gave several guitars to Musikmuseet in Stockholm. Also an obituary in Svenska Dagbladet, 28th December, 1923. (Note 89)
In addition to those mentioned above, several who arranged works for the guitar can be listed: Johan Peter Cronhamn, who claims to have arranged 1,000 songs for guitar and also published Amanda. Tolv sĆnger, af Ćtskillige tonsättare med Guitarre accompagnement af [Twelve Songs by Various Composers with Guitar Accompaniment by] J. P. Cronhamn - followed by a second volume—and the flutist and clarinettist, Carl Friedrich Bock, who was born in Berlin but worked in Stockholm and who arranged for guitar Rosa Walzer af J. Strauss arrangerade för Flöjt och Guitare [Rosa Walzer by J. Strauss, Arranged for Flute and Guitar]. Bock also translated into Swedish and published the 5th edition of Carulli’s Guitarskola jemte öfningsstycken af [Guitar Method with Exercises by] C. F. Bock. (Note 90)
When the guitar reached a great popularity in Sweden, several song collections with guitar accompaniment appeared, generally dating from c. 1820-1840, and they are more or less the counterpart of the French journals. In the foregoing we mentioned J. P.. Cronhamn’s song collection Amanda, F. W. Hildebrand’s Journal för Guitarre, and Polymnia published by H. Neupert and A. G. Dannström. We would now list in alphabetical order the other known song collections from that time which have guitar accompaniments. (Note 91) (Note 92) Adina. Wald Samling af Lätta Tonstycken vid Guitarr [Adina. Selected Easy Songs with Guitar]; Aftonstunder vid Guitarren. SĆnger med ett lätt Accompagnement [Evening Hours with the Guitar, Songs with an Easy Accompaniment]. Apollo. SĆngstycken med Guitarreaccompagnement [Apollo. Songs with Guitar Accompaniment]. Bibliothek för Guitarr-spelare [Library for Guitar Players], 3 volumes 1840-41. Brage. SĆnger med accompagnement af Guitarre [Brage. Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar]. Euphrosyne. Samling af Valda SĆngstycken med accompagnement af Guitarre [Euphrosyne. Collection of Selected Songs with Guitar Accompaniment]. Lördags Magazin för Guitarr Spelare [Saturday Magazine for Guitar Players] Stockholm, 1839. Melpomene. Tolf SĆnger med Guitarreaccompagnement [Melpomene. Twelve Songs with Guitar Accompaniment]. Necken. Weckoblad för Guitarrspelare [Necken. A Weekly Magazin for Guitar Players] Stockholm 1832, 1833. Nytt Lördags-Magazin för Guitarr-spelare [New Saturday Magazine for Guitar Players], Stockholm 1842. Orphĺa. Walda SĆngstycken med accompagnement för Guitarre [Orphĺa. Selected Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar]. In the second volume: Samling af valda SĆngstycken med accompagnement af Guitarre [Collection of Selected Songs with Accompaniment for Guitar] the editor’s foreword is dated Stockholm, 20 March, 1833. Penelope. Wald samling af Lätta SĆngstycken vid Guitarre [Penelope. Collection of Selected Easy Songs with Guitar]. PhilomŹle. Vald Samling af Lätta SĆngstycken vid Guitarre [PhilomŹle. Collection of Selected Easy Songs with Guitar].
As we have already pointed out several translations and editions of famous foreign guitar methods appeared in Sweden. We have already mentioned C. F. Bock’s and J. J. Nagel’s editions of Carulli’s guitar method, of which there is an edition published by A. W. Möller’s music shop in Stockholm. Mauro Giuliani’s Guitarrskola, Samling af Melodiska Original-öfningar i progressiv ordning [Guitar Method, Collection of Melodic Original Exercises in Progressive Order] was published by Hirsch, and Caron & Lundquist. The following comprise other guitar methods published in Sweden and listed in alphabetical order: (Note 93) Carl AugĆrdh, Förberedande Gitarr- och Lutaskola [Preparatory Guitar and Lute Method], is contemporary. Ferd. Bengzon, Nyaste Gitarrskolan för sjelfstudium [The Newest Guitar Method for Self Instruction] from 1891. Bengzon has also translated J. Poesinger, Lilla guitarrskolan [Little Guitar Method]. (Note 94) G. J. Charles, Ny Guitarrskola för begynnare [New Guitar Method for Beginners], Stockholm 1857. Adolf Edgren has published several methods: Lättfattlig Gitarrskola [Easy Guitar method] in which he mentions that he is the inventor of a patented guitar, the Reform Guitar, which is pictured and described. Fullständig Gitarrskola [Complete Guitar method] (12 editions). Mindre Gitarrskola [Minor Guitar Method] (5 editions). J. Müller, Guitarre-Skola [Guitar method]. Emil Nützmann, Ny Praktisk Skola för Guitarr eller Luta [New Practical Method for Guitar or Lute] is also contemporary. P. Persson, Guitarrnotation [Guitar Notation], Sundsvall 1898. J. P. Sjöberg, Guitarr Skola [Guitar method]. Sundsvall. By Sjöberg is also De första grunderna i Guitarre-spelning för Nybegynnare [The First Foundations in Guitar Playing for Beginners] Stockholm 1876. A list of Swedish printed works for the guitar is in Kenneth Sparr, “Musik för gitarr utgiven i Sverige 1800-1860” (Svenskt musikhistoriskt arkiv, Bulletin 24, Stockholm 1989 pp. 20-40). On the history of the guitar in Sweden see also Kenneth Sparr’s articles "The Guitar in Sweden to the mid nineteenth Century” (Soundboard 17/1990 No. 1 pp. 16-23), in a Swedish version “Gitarren i Sverige till 1800-talets mitt” (Gitarr och Luta 24/1991 nr 1 pp. 3-11), in an Italian version “La chitarra in Svezia fino alla metą del XIX secolo” (il Fronimo nr 78 1992 pp. 8-17) and in a German version “Die Gitarre in Schweden bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts” (Gitarre & Laute 14/ 1992 Heft 2, pp. 57-64).
Dans cette étude, nous avons voulu donner quelques additions ą l’excellent ouvarge de M. Josef Zuth: Handbuch der Laute und Gitarre, et aussi rectifier quelques erreurs qui s’y sont glissées. En général, nous nous sommes borné ą la guitarre—nous donnons seulement quelques détails sur les luthistes danois et suŹdoisó, et nous suivons les guitaristes en France, en Belgique, en Italie, en Espagne, au Portugal, en Allemagne, en Angleterre, au Danemark, en SuŹde. La plupart des compositions que nous mentionnons se trouvent dans notre collection. Cependant, les compositions franćaises pour chant et guitare (lyre) de cette collection sont si nombreuses que nous avons préféré les traiter en détail dans une étude séparée.
47. A catalogue from the English antiquarian bookseller from which both were purchased indicates for the first “c. 1770” and for the second, “c. 1772”. The first part includes title page, music pp. 2-14; the second, title page, music pp. 2-13. Oblong 4o. Return to text
50. Concerning foreign guitarists working in England, we would note the following: the Pragueborn Felix Horetzky is said by Bone and Zuth to have died in Russia in 1846. However, we would claim, without being able to check the veracity of our information, that in one copy of Bone’s work which we received from Bone himself that this notice is changed to “died in Edinburgh, 1871, in his 71st year”. Horetzky’s student, the Pole Stanislaus Sczepanowski is also dealt with by Bone. In covering his compositions, Bone clearly basically follows the presentation in the supplement to Fétis’ Biographie Universelle (where the name is spelt Szczepanowski), but Bone seems to have entered one composition as two: “Souvenir of Warsaw” and “Military Potpourri”, whereas in Fétis the title is “Souvenir de Varsovie, pot-pourri militaire.” Return to text
59. Concerning lute books in the Royal Library in Copenhagen, Zuth calls attention to the handwritten “Lieder und Tänze, von diesem etliche in deutscher Lautentabulatur aufgezeichnet”. This collection had been gathered by Petrus Fabricius (on p. 169 Zuth has Fabritius like the handwritten copy), and Petrus Laurenberg in Rostock (1603-05). Also Eitner whom Zuth refers to in the article on Fabricius has the spelling Laurenberg, but protests VI, p. 75 that a professor in Rostock, presumably the same as the person in question, is called Peter Lauremberg, not Laurenberg. Also in VIII, p. 433, Eitner has written Lauremberg. Cf. the spelling of Lauremberg in other cases: Eitner, VI, p. 75, and Hammerich, Dansk Muskhistorie, p. 166. Return to text
62. At present interest in the guitar seems to be quite strong in Copenhagen. In the 13th April, 1931 issue of the newspaper Politiken there is a notice about another association in the Danish capital: "Guitarrens Venner” [Friends of the Guitar] who, e. g. engaged the famous Austrian guitar player, Luise Walker for a concert in the music conservatory’s salon. Return to text
64. The Danish guitar and lute makers have not had just treatment by Zuth. The only ones included are the guitar makers, the brothers Gade—the one mentioned above, the father of the composer. Furthermore, Zuth states that an instrument maker, Archusen, who moved to Russia, and in St. Petersburg founded an atelier for string instruments, particularly for the guitar, was born in Copenhagen in 1795. It could also be mentioned here that Zuth refers to two lutes by famous makers, which exist in consul general Claudius’ collection in Copenhagen: one lute by Sixtus Rauwolf, and a theorbo by Magnus Tieffenbrucker from 1584 (repaired by Joh. Chr. Hoffmann in Leipzig in 1741). Zuth has obviously taken his information about these instruments from von Lütgendorff’s work. Referring to consul general Claudius’ catalogue, a few details could be pointed out: Rauwolf’s lute, according to von Lütgendorff, is equipped “mit sechs doppelten und vier einzelnen Saiten”, according to Claudius’ catalogue, with 10 double strings; Magnus Tieffenbrucker’s theorbo, according to von Lütgendorff, “mit 7 doppelten und 4 einzelnen Saiten”, but according to Claudius’ catalogue, it had 7 double and 5 single strings. Return to text
65. Of Norwegian published guitar music we are only familar with: Guitarspillerens Sang -bog. Lette Sange med Guitarakkompagnement, samlede og arrangerede af [Guitar Player’s Song Book. Easy Songs with Guitar Accompaniment, collected and arranged by] C. Warmuth sen. Warmuth (1811-92) was born in Germany but came to Norway in 1840. Also: Vejledning i praktisk Guitarspil [Instruction in Practical Guitar Playing], by Ole GrŅndahl (1847-1923), song instructor and composer in Oslo. Generally, Norway is very slightly represented in Zuth. We have only found articles on two Norwegian singers, Astrid Jordan, who sings accompanied by the lute-guitar, and gave concerts in several cities in Germany; and Caroline Bokken Lasson who accompanied by either lute or piano sang both in Europe and America (her entry in Zuth is under Bokken; in other musical dictionaries she is found under Lasson). Vis the guitar in Norway, we would mention that in our instrument collection we have a guitar made by the instrument maker in Kristiania [Oslo], Georg Daniel Schöne. Guitars by this excellent maker are rare. In Harry Fetts catalogue, Musikinstrumenter, Kristiania, 1904, are listed a “hakeharpe” [hook harp], and a clavichord by Schöne, but no guitar. Schöne is not mentioned in v. Lütgendorff’s work. Return to text
67. Wolf, Nk. II. is given as the source for this notice. Cf. Zuth’s Handbuch under Geer, Lud, de: “Riemann (ML) verzeichnet von ihm zu Paris eine handschriftliche Lautentabulatur aus 1639.” Return to text
68. Cf. Norlind, Svensk Musikhistoria, pp. 104-5: “Fem menuetter för cembalo i behĆll i en handskriven klavérbok, fordom tillhörig professor Ternstedt in Uppsala (Upps. Bibl. I.M. Tab 110)” och "Marche de Narva”. [Five Minuettes for cembalo contained in a handwritten keyboard book, belonging to Professor Ternstedt in Uppsala (Uppsala Library I M Tab. 110), and “Marche de Narva”. Return to text
71. We will return in a later article to the Swedish lute and guitar makers—the younger ones have been entirely omitted by Zuth. Fryklund says that he will return in a later article to the Swedish lute- and guitar maker, but this article was never realised. It was instead Tobias Norlind who treated this subject in his article “Den svenska lutan” (Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning 17/1935 pp. 5-43).Return to text
73. Already in the Middle Ages lute players in Sweden were discussed. In 1439, for example in Stockholm, one Conrad lutenista was mentioned. In Stockholm Stads Tänkeböcker for 1482, two “trympare” were entered, Eric and Jacob, of whom Eric had his "trympa stolen”. It has been suggested that the "trympa” was a designation for a “Lutha” [lute], and thus a “trympare” could have been a "lutenist"—a supposition for which, however, there is no proof (see Emil Trobäck, "Stadsmusiken i Stockholm”, Sv. Tidskr. för Musikf., 1929, p. 93). Return to text
74. According to Norlind ,Svensk Musikhistoria, around 1600 the lute players John Dowland, and the Italian Catone Diomedes, who was lutenist at the court of Sigismund III of Poland, and the Frenchman, Boquet, were the most famous composers of instrumental music in Sweden. Return to text
76. It is interesting to study the lute in Nils Dencker’s essay, "Musiknotiser i 1600-talets verser” [Music Notation in 17th century Verses] (Sv. Tidskrift för Musikforskning, 1930, pp 53-73). It is stated there that the lute, as well as the violin, cymbal and regal were the instruments most often referred to in ceremonial poems during the last half of the 17th century—the lute is mentioned in no less than 25 of these poems. The author notes that towards the end of the century the regal occurs less often than before, but the viol occurs more. Also the lute is mentioned more often at the end of the century. In Dencker’s essay the lute is mentioned in the first citation: “Heroisk Fägne-SĆng af Stiernhielm pĆ drottning Christinas födelsedag den 8 dec. 1643 [Heroic Song, by Stiernhielm, written for Queen Christina’s birthday, 8 December, 1643];” as well as in the last citation, a poem for a wedding, 31 May, 1699, held at Egby House. Of particular interest is the poem for the marriage in 1675 between Marcus Cronström and Sigrid Ekehielm, which was sent from Leipzig by Samuel Columbus, printed in Leipzig, 1676: Ueberschrift über eine Laute. It is howeber not certain that lute in all these instances really means the instrument lute. The references could be to other instruments or have had a particular poetic significanc (cf. Norlind, Allmänt Musiklexikon, p. 223, on the lute during the Gustavian period. The theorbo is mentioned in Dencker’s material only once; the angelica, not at all. Return to text
78. The mandolin, its virtuoso players and composers, are also dealt with in Zuth’s work. However, we cannot discover any reference to the foremost Italian mandolin player, Zaneboni, who, “med serdeles succes lĆtit höra sig vid Ćtskilliga Hof och nu senast inför DD. MM. och K. Hofvet pĆ Drottningholm” [with particular success performed for various Courts, most recently before their Royal Majesties and at the Royal Court at Drottningholm] and who gave several concerts in Stockholm in 1779 and 1780, where he also performed his own compositions: Soloconcert med Rondeau f. mandolin [Solo Concerto with Rondeau for Mandolin]. Later, at a concert in Stockholm, 16th December, 1781, two Italian mandolin players performed, Lovise Esio, and Carrenso (see Vretblad, Konsertlivet i Stockholm under 1700-talet). Return to text
79. Concerning the appearance of the lute in Sweden, it is important to remember that even in the beginning of the eighteenth century, lutes were made by Jonas Elg and Sven Beckman. The so-called Swedish lute appearing later, and thought to have been invented by Pehr Kraft —also Ankar; certainly a violinist in the court orchestra, Johan Wilhelm Ankar, seems to have played a certain role in thisó(see Envallsson: Svenskt Musikaliskt Lexikon, p. 50) developed between 1780 and 1820. A fair amount of works—none printed—for this instrument was composed, of which Musikmuseet in Stockholm has preserved a large collection. Bellman often refers to the lute in his writing, but according to Norlind (Allmänt Musiklexikon, p. 223) the lute in Bellman’s writings should actually be taken as the cittra [cithern or English guitar]- a use of the word lute which was quite usual in the Gustavian period. Norlind suggests otherwise that Bellman hardly played the Kraft-lute. Return to text
80. With reference to ealier lutenists in Sweden, we would refer to Norlind, Allmänt Musiklexikon, Svensk Musikhistoria and Trobäck, Kungl. Hovkapellets historia. In Allmänt Musiklexikon, II, p. 88, there is a survey of printed lute books in Swedish libraries, and lute manuscripts in Sweden. Amongst the printed works in the Uppsala Library we would particularly choose Intabolatura di Lauto del diuino Francesco da Milano et dell’ ecellente Pietro Paulo Borrono da Milano, nuovamente posta in luce et con ogni diligentia corretta, opera nuova & perfettissima sopra qualunche altra Intavolatura. Libro Secondo. Venetiis 1546. As regards this important work, of which only the Uppsala copy is known, see Mitjana: En bibliografisk visit i Uppsala Universitets Musikavdelning [A Bibliographical Visit to Uppsala University’s Library Music Department], p. 19. Mitjana also mentions on the same page another rare work: Intabolature de lauto di lo eccellentissimo musicho Messer Antonio Rotta—Libro Primo, Venetiis, 1546. In the copy in Uppsala, the publisher’s name is not given, but Mitjana guesses Gardano, and this is more or less confirmed by Eitner: the Hof—und Staatsbibliotek in Munich has two copies, the one without publisher’s name, the other with Gardano’s name. Return to text
81. Of interest for the guitar’s prior history in Sweden is that Sven Beckman made a decorative guitar in 1757 which is supposed to have belonged to Queen Lovisa Ulrika and which was in Chr. Hammer’s collection in Stockholm Also Pehr Kraft made a guitar, dated 1800. Return to text
82. The lyre guitar neve really achieved much success in Sweden or Denmark. We know of only two lyre guitars made in Sweden, the one by Johan Jerner in Stockholm, dated 1807 (in Nordiska museet) and the other by J. Andersson in Skara from 1841 (Musikmuseet). We know of no Danish lyre guitar. Return to text
86. Presumably the same Vilh. Ström who is included in “Ur Nutidens musikliv”, 1924 as the composer of Romans för 4 F-horn [Romance for 4 Horns in F] (p. 66); Duett för 2 violonceller [Duet for 2 Cellos] (p. 68), and Sonat för oboe och piano [Sonata for Oboe and Piano] (p. 121). The author of the article in the above-mentioned journal has not been able to give any biographical information about Ström. Return to text
87. Franz Sprenzinger (b. 1864 in Munich, d. 1924 in Augsburg) was an enthusiastic guitar amateur, in contact with the leading guitarists of his time, and participated in the founding of Internationaler Gitarristenverband in Munich. Return to text
88. Otto Hammerer, b, 1834 in Augsburg, died according to Zuth in the same town 2 February 1905. Hammerer, who was a merchant by profession, was an excellent soloist on the guitar and left a valuable contribution to the journals for guitar in Munich and Augsburg. When both Hammerer and Sprenzinger were living in Augsburg, it is likely that Boije met them during his travels south. Return to text
Annotation and Editorial content Copyright © 1997 by Kenneth Sparr. All Rights Reserved.